Qualifying as a French Avocat


tonykhan
Hi,

As a non-corporate/commercial solicitor qualified in the UK, with zero years post-qualification experience (PQE), what steps could one take to practise in France as an 'avocat'?

The Law Society does have information on its website, but it gives no details of (i) the name of the French test (i.e. equivalent of QLTT); (ii) the duration of preparation required; and (iii) the level of academic and practical experience that a UK lawyer must have attained before sitting the exam, if any.

http://international.lawsociety.org.uk/ip/europe/572/practise

What job opportunities exist for a cross-qualified lawyer in France (e.g. Paris) outside of corporate and commercial law, and particularly in criminal law?

Thanks.
Hi,

As a non-corporate/commercial solicitor qualified in the UK, with zero years post-qualification experience (PQE), what steps could one take to practise in France as an 'avocat'?

The Law Society does have information on its website, but it gives no details of (i) the name of the French test (i.e. equivalent of QLTT); (ii) the duration of preparation required; and (iii) the level of academic and practical experience that a UK lawyer must have attained before sitting the exam, if any.

http://international.lawsociety.org.uk/ip/europe/572/practise

What job opportunities exist for a cross-qualified lawyer in France (e.g. Paris) outside of corporate and commercial law, and particularly in criminal law?

Thanks.
quote
laodeshu
Hi Tonykhan,

I am a French "avocat" to be:), so maybe i can be helpful somehow. if you need more answers, don't hesitate to ask!

there are two possibilities to qualify as "avocat".

either you are already a lawyer in your country (which i guess is your case), and then you have to pass a simplified examination (not sure of the name, though..) basically you study deontology, tort law and a few others... I am not very much aware of that procedure, but maybe you can find helpful info on www.avocatparis.org/

or you're not a qualified lawyer in your home country and then you have to take the entrance examination to a Centre de Formation Régional à la Profession d'Avocat (CRFPA -one by region) or the the Ecole de Formation du Barreau (same kind of school, but this name only applies to the Paris school).
To be able to sit for the CRFPA exam, you first have to be registered in an IEJ (Institut d'Etudes Judiciaires) for one year. Every University has an IEJ, and it prepares you to the exam. they give lectures and classes every week, on the subjects required to pass the exam (accountings, tort, international, procedure, criminal law etc etc)
to be honest, i actually never attended these classes, instead i follow an intensive private program during the summer to prepare the exam.
However, whether you attend the classes or not , you have to be registered within an IEJ.

Every IEJ organises its own examination to enter the CRFPA (i know it's pretty weird), so some IEJ are known for being quite easy when others give really hard examinations.... example: 30-35% of the students from the IEJ of Paris 2 are admitted to the EFB; 60% of the students from the IEJ of Malakoff are admitted to the EFB etc.

once you pass the exam , you enter the CRFPA or EFB.
Then, you have 18 months of attendance in this school:
6 months of classes
6 months of PPI (basically, you have to do an internship, or an LLM, or anything related to law, but no internship in a law firm in France)
6 months of internship in a law firm in France

once these 18 months are done, you take an other examination, to finally qualify as a lawyer, called the CAPA (Certificat d'Aptitude à la Profession d'Avocat)

And finally you become a qualified lawyer... :)

I won't be of much help concerning the job opportunities, sorry..

so if i can be of any more help, just tell me!
Hi Tonykhan,

I am a French "avocat" to be:), so maybe i can be helpful somehow. if you need more answers, don't hesitate to ask!

there are two possibilities to qualify as "avocat".

either you are already a lawyer in your country (which i guess is your case), and then you have to pass a simplified examination (not sure of the name, though..) basically you study deontology, tort law and a few others... I am not very much aware of that procedure, but maybe you can find helpful info on www.avocatparis.org/

or you're not a qualified lawyer in your home country and then you have to take the entrance examination to a Centre de Formation Régional à la Profession d'Avocat (CRFPA -one by region) or the the Ecole de Formation du Barreau (same kind of school, but this name only applies to the Paris school).
To be able to sit for the CRFPA exam, you first have to be registered in an IEJ (Institut d'Etudes Judiciaires) for one year. Every University has an IEJ, and it prepares you to the exam. they give lectures and classes every week, on the subjects required to pass the exam (accountings, tort, international, procedure, criminal law etc etc)
to be honest, i actually never attended these classes, instead i follow an intensive private program during the summer to prepare the exam.
However, whether you attend the classes or not , you have to be registered within an IEJ.

Every IEJ organises its own examination to enter the CRFPA (i know it's pretty weird), so some IEJ are known for being quite easy when others give really hard examinations.... example: 30-35% of the students from the IEJ of Paris 2 are admitted to the EFB; 60% of the students from the IEJ of Malakoff are admitted to the EFB etc.

once you pass the exam , you enter the CRFPA or EFB.
Then, you have 18 months of attendance in this school:
6 months of classes
6 months of PPI (basically, you have to do an internship, or an LLM, or anything related to law, but no internship in a law firm in France)
6 months of internship in a law firm in France

once these 18 months are done, you take an other examination, to finally qualify as a lawyer, called the CAPA (Certificat d'Aptitude à la Profession d'Avocat)

And finally you become a qualified lawyer... :)

I won't be of much help concerning the job opportunities, sorry..

so if i can be of any more help, just tell me!
quote
ASo
Hi! have a look at this (I hope you speak French) :

http://archives.cnb.avocat.fr/VieProfessionAvocat/
VPA_deveniravocat_lesresortissants_communautaires.php

as solicitor qualified in the UK, you should fulfil the conditions!

best of luck!
Hi! have a look at this (I hope you speak French) :

http://archives.cnb.avocat.fr/VieProfessionAvocat/
VPA_deveniravocat_lesresortissants_communautaires.php

as solicitor qualified in the UK, you should fulfil the conditions!

best of luck!
quote
be_nata
Hello guys,

Here I come picking up a topic you recently discussed. My situation is slightly more complicated than tonykhan's as I am not qualified in any of the EU countries. However, I am admitted to practice in Russia (which basically is due to the fact that we are allowed to practice after 5 years of the legal studies without a need to pass any bar exams).

So my question is, does "qualification" in a foreign country (which gives you a chance to get bar inscription in France through simplified procedure) means only being registered at a foreign bar? Does the fact that you are admitted to practice without passing any bar exams have no meaning at all for this purpose?

I would really appreciate any information on this point. I am working as a paralegal practicing international law at the law firm in Paris and I clearly see how my career opportunities are limited without French bar.
Hello guys,

Here I come picking up a topic you recently discussed. My situation is slightly more complicated than tonykhan's as I am not qualified in any of the EU countries. However, I am admitted to practice in Russia (which basically is due to the fact that we are allowed to practice after 5 years of the legal studies without a need to pass any bar exams).

So my question is, does "qualification" in a foreign country (which gives you a chance to get bar inscription in France through simplified procedure) means only being registered at a foreign bar? Does the fact that you are admitted to practice without passing any bar exams have no meaning at all for this purpose?

I would really appreciate any information on this point. I am working as a paralegal practicing international law at the law firm in Paris and I clearly see how my career opportunities are limited without French bar.
quote
huijianz
I think the rule for the simplified procedure is for EU qualified lawyers only under the Establishment Directive.

I am interested in the exception rather than the rule. Is there any dispensation for any tests to qualify as an avocat for a doctorate holder in law from a French university such as Paris II?
I think the rule for the simplified procedure is for EU qualified lawyers only under the Establishment Directive.

I am interested in the exception rather than the rule. Is there any dispensation for any tests to qualify as an avocat for a doctorate holder in law from a French university such as Paris II?
quote
Holding a doctorate issued by a French university allows you to be admitted at the bar school without having to sit the admission exam (a.k.a. "examen d'entrée au CRFPA").
Holding a doctorate issued by a French university allows you to be admitted at the bar school without having to sit the admission exam (a.k.a. "examen d'entrée au CRFPA").
quote
huijianz
Thanks a lot for your reply, Applicant20091.

I am indeed confused about this "l'examen de contrôle des connaissances prévu à l'article 91". Is it the entrance exam for the Bar school (ie, you still have to follow 18 months)? or the graduating exam from the Bar School (i.e., there is no need to do the 18 months)?
Article 92
Sont dispensés de l'examen de contrôle des connaissances prévu à l'article 91 :
........
4° Les docteurs en droit dont la thèse a porté sur la spécialisation revendiquée et justifiant de quatre années de pratique professionnelle acquise dans les conditions prévues par l'article 88.
Thanks a lot for your reply, Applicant20091.

I am indeed confused about this "l'examen de contrôle des connaissances prévu à l'article 91". Is it the entrance exam for the Bar school (ie, you still have to follow 18 months)? or the graduating exam from the Bar School (i.e., there is no need to do the 18 months)?
Article 92
Sont dispensés de l'examen de contrôle des connaissances prévu à l'article 91 :
........
4° Les docteurs en droit dont la thèse a porté sur la spécialisation revendiquée et justifiant de quatre années de pratique professionnelle acquise dans les conditions prévues par l'article 88.
quote
koala
My understanding of article 91 which states that you can be exempt from the exam with a 'Doctorat' (PhD) is to enter the Bar school, not to graduate from the Bar school.
My understanding of article 91 which states that you can be exempt from the exam with a 'Doctorat' (PhD) is to enter the Bar school, not to graduate from the Bar school.
quote
huijianz
Thanks for this Koala.

In my understanding, docteur en droit will certainly be exempted from the entrance exam for the Bar School. The question is whether he or she can be exempted from the 18 months of study.

I do not know how this law is applied in practice. Logically, I think, for those who have 4 years experience as a lawyer in addition to the docteur en droit, he is exempted from the 18 months training altogether.

Otherwise, why ask a docteur en droit with 4 years work experience to do the training (particularly the practical portion of the 18 months training).

If a docteur en droit does not have any experience as a lawyer, he is only exempted from the entrance exam, i.e., he has to follow the 18 months training.
Thanks for this Koala.

In my understanding, docteur en droit will certainly be exempted from the entrance exam for the Bar School. The question is whether he or she can be exempted from the 18 months of study.

I do not know how this law is applied in practice. Logically, I think, for those who have 4 years experience as a lawyer in addition to the docteur en droit, he is exempted from the 18 months training altogether.

Otherwise, why ask a docteur en droit with 4 years work experience to do the training (particularly the practical portion of the 18 months training).

If a docteur en droit does not have any experience as a lawyer, he is only exempted from the entrance exam, i.e., he has to follow the 18 months training.
quote
koala
Hi Huijianz. I agree with you. It is very unlikely that the exemption will play if the docteur en droit does not have any 'real-life' experience. But every case is unique and the only ones who could provide some guidance are the bar council of the place where you want to practice law.
Hi Huijianz. I agree with you. It is very unlikely that the exemption will play if the docteur en droit does not have any 'real-life' experience. But every case is unique and the only ones who could provide some guidance are the bar council of the place where you want to practice law.
quote
jackoune
Hey guys,

It is not necessary to held a french doctorat (PHD) but a PHD in general is enough to join the CRFPA. (see the thieffry case before the ECJ about it. Basically this now well known belgian citizen wanted to join the Paris CRFPA with his belgium PHD. French courts said that only french doctorat could be accepted. The ECJ concluded that it was a way to discriminate other lawyers).

So, you don't have to sit for the exam BUT you still have 12 months to do: the school itself and the trainee, but you are exempted from the PPI.

Hope this helps.
Hey guys,

It is not necessary to held a french doctorat (PHD) but a PHD in general is enough to join the CRFPA. (see the thieffry case before the ECJ about it. Basically this now well known belgian citizen wanted to join the Paris CRFPA with his belgium PHD. French courts said that only french doctorat could be accepted. The ECJ concluded that it was a way to discriminate other lawyers).

So, you don't have to sit for the exam BUT you still have 12 months to do: the school itself and the trainee, but you are exempted from the PPI.

Hope this helps.
quote
huijianz
Thanks a lot Jackoune. This is extremely helpful. Very interesting case law. However, I am wondering what consequence this case will have on the exception. If foreign (EU) doctorat will also qualify for the exemption, then the French will probably reconsider this favor. They may remove this exeption altogether or impose other conditions (good level of French language proficiency etc.).
Thanks a lot Jackoune. This is extremely helpful. Very interesting case law. However, I am wondering what consequence this case will have on the exception. If foreign (EU) doctorat will also qualify for the exemption, then the French will probably reconsider this favor. They may remove this exeption altogether or impose other conditions (good level of French language proficiency etc.).
quote
koala
Hi, I think that a good command of French is obvious if you want to become a French lawyer. If you do not speak good French that is going to be very difficult to work there anyway. I do not think that France will be trying to filter foreigners after the ECJ's decision. It is France's interest to have a diverse bar and to encourage European lawyers to practice in France...it is maybe wishful thinking but that is definitely the way forward. Go for it!
Hi, I think that a good command of French is obvious if you want to become a French lawyer. If you do not speak good French that is going to be very difficult to work there anyway. I do not think that France will be trying to filter foreigners after the ECJ's decision. It is France's interest to have a diverse bar and to encourage European lawyers to practice in France...it is maybe wishful thinking but that is definitely the way forward. Go for it!
quote
daniel123
I am an Australian Lawyer. I have a Bachelor of Laws (5 year course), Graduate Diploma in Legal Practice (1 year) and I learnt French at Uni. I am admitted to the Supreme Court in Victoria, Australia. I am also a UK citizen. I want to know the quickest way to get admitted in France and whether it is necessary to also study a Masters in Law. Thanks.
I am an Australian Lawyer. I have a Bachelor of Laws (5 year course), Graduate Diploma in Legal Practice (1 year) and I learnt French at Uni. I am admitted to the Supreme Court in Victoria, Australia. I am also a UK citizen. I want to know the quickest way to get admitted in France and whether it is necessary to also study a Masters in Law. Thanks.
quote
barmenator
Daniel 123:

As of today, there is no way you could be admitted to the bar in France, by just being qualified in Australia.

Taking the foregoing steps, more than "necessary", would be "essential".

You would have to either:

1) qualify in England with a UK LLB, LLM, LPC, GDL, etc. (try to see if you can get some credits tranfer), or pass the QLTS, and learn French, get a job at a UK firm with branch offices in France, apply for relocation to France, practice law in France for 3 yrs; or

2) master French, study an M1/M2 in French Law, try to pass the Bar admission exam, enroll in a French Bar School, and do the 1.5 yr program.

Unfortunately, all European legal systems are designed for EU member nationals, not for non EU foreigner lawyers.

Sorry to disappoint you!
Daniel 123:

As of today, there is no way you could be admitted to the bar in France, by just being qualified in Australia.

Taking the foregoing steps, more than "necessary", would be "essential".

You would have to either:

1) qualify in England with a UK LLB, LLM, LPC, GDL, etc. (try to see if you can get some credits tranfer), or pass the QLTS, and learn French, get a job at a UK firm with branch offices in France, apply for relocation to France, practice law in France for 3 yrs; or

2) master French, study an M1/M2 in French Law, try to pass the Bar admission exam, enroll in a French Bar School, and do the 1.5 yr program.

Unfortunately, all European legal systems are designed for EU member nationals, not for non EU foreigner lawyers.

Sorry to disappoint you!
quote
tiburon
Hi to everybody!!!!!!!
About requirements for ammission in a good LLM, except to spek a good english(5.5-6.5 ielts), IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE 1 OR MORE HABILITATIONS LIKE "AVVOCATO", "ABOGADO", "SOLICITOR", ETC....?
Thanks
Hi to everybody!!!!!!!
About requirements for ammission in a good LLM, except to spek a good english(5.5-6.5 ielts), IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE 1 OR MORE HABILITATIONS LIKE "AVVOCATO", "ABOGADO", "SOLICITOR", ETC....?
Thanks
quote
barmenator
Hi to everybody!!!!!!!
About requirements for ammission in a good LLM, except to spek a good english(5.5-6.5 ielts), IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE 1 OR MORE HABILITATIONS LIKE "AVVOCATO", "ABOGADO", "SOLICITOR", ETC....?
Thanks


Hola, Tiburón.

LLM is tipically a common law degree, thus, requires English language proficiency as it is the language of instruction.

Therefore, most good LLMs require over 6.5 and up to 7.5 IELTS.

If you only speak good Spanish, I would suggest you look for a "Maestría" in Spain, instead of an LLM, which would be its Civil Law equivalent.

And no, qualification in 1 or more jurisdictions is not a requirement for admission.

Good luck!
<blockquote>Hi to everybody!!!!!!!
About requirements for ammission in a good LLM, except to spek a good english(5.5-6.5 ielts), IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE 1 OR MORE HABILITATIONS LIKE "AVVOCATO", "ABOGADO", "SOLICITOR", ETC....?
Thanks</blockquote>

Hola, Tiburón.

LLM is tipically a common law degree, thus, requires English language proficiency as it is the language of instruction.

Therefore, most good LLMs require over 6.5 and up to 7.5 IELTS.

If you only speak good Spanish, I would suggest you look for a "Maestría" in Spain, instead of an LLM, which would be its Civil Law equivalent.

And no, qualification in 1 or more jurisdictions is not a requirement for admission.

Good luck!
quote
tiburon
Thank for your suggest, but my situation it s so strange.
I ve family legal office but I would like( as i did in the past) keep in countact with smart people around the world( and an llm can be a good situation). Then, it s for have a " second way" for my future.
Clear, i have to choose a part time llm( I m diffident about online llm).
In first, i will go quickly to improve my english hijiji.
Thanks
Thank for your suggest, but my situation it s so strange.
I ve family legal office but I would like( as i did in the past) keep in countact with smart people around the world( and an llm can be a good situation). Then, it s for have a " second way" for my future.
Clear, i have to choose a part time llm( I m diffident about online llm).
In first, i will go quickly to improve my english hijiji.
Thanks
quote
leasun
Hey guys,

It is not necessary to held a french doctorat (PHD) but a PHD in general is enough to join the CRFPA. (see the thieffry case before the ECJ about it. Basically this now well known belgian citizen wanted to join the Paris CRFPA with his belgium PHD. French courts said that only french doctorat could be accepted. The ECJ concluded that it was a way to discriminate other lawyers).

So, you don't have to sit for the exam BUT you still have 12 months to do: the school itself and the trainee, but you are exempted from the PPI.

Hope this helps.


Hi thank you for great post, just to confirm, after 12 months you need to sit final exam yes?
do you know if they accept traineeship in eu agency (litigation) done before enrolling into bar school?

thanks lea
<blockquote>Hey guys,

It is not necessary to held a french doctorat (PHD) but a PHD in general is enough to join the CRFPA. (see the thieffry case before the ECJ about it. Basically this now well known belgian citizen wanted to join the Paris CRFPA with his belgium PHD. French courts said that only french doctorat could be accepted. The ECJ concluded that it was a way to discriminate other lawyers).

So, you don't have to sit for the exam BUT you still have 12 months to do: the school itself and the trainee, but you are exempted from the PPI.

Hope this helps.</blockquote>

Hi thank you for great post, just to confirm, after 12 months you need to sit final exam yes?
do you know if they accept traineeship in eu agency (litigation) done before enrolling into bar school?

thanks lea
quote
N G
Hi Tonykhan,

I am a French "avocat" to be:), so maybe i can be helpful somehow. if you need more answers, don't hesitate to ask!

there are two possibilities to qualify as "avocat".

either you are already a lawyer in your country (which i guess is your case), and then you have to pass a simplified examination (not sure of the name, though..) basically you study deontology, tort law and a few others... I am not very much aware of that procedure, but maybe you can find helpful info on www.avocatparis.org/

or you're not a qualified lawyer in your home country and then you have to take the entrance examination to a Centre de Formation Régional à la Profession d'Avocat (CRFPA -one by region) or the the Ecole de Formation du Barreau (same kind of school, but this name only applies to the Paris school).
To be able to sit for the CRFPA exam, you first have to be registered in an IEJ (Institut d'Etudes Judiciaires) for one year. Every University has an IEJ, and it prepares you to the exam. they give lectures and classes every week, on the subjects required to pass the exam (accountings, tort, international, procedure, criminal law etc etc)
to be honest, i actually never attended these classes, instead i follow an intensive private program during the summer to prepare the exam.
However, whether you attend the classes or not , you have to be registered within an IEJ.

Every IEJ organises its own examination to enter the CRFPA (i know it's pretty weird), so some IEJ are known for being quite easy when others give really hard examinations.... example: 30-35% of the students from the IEJ of Paris 2 are admitted to the EFB; 60% of the students from the IEJ of Malakoff are admitted to the EFB etc.

once you pass the exam , you enter the CRFPA or EFB.
Then, you have 18 months of attendance in this school:
6 months of classes
6 months of PPI (basically, you have to do an internship, or an LLM, or anything related to law, but no internship in a law firm in France)
6 months of internship in a law firm in France

once these 18 months are done, you take an other examination, to finally qualify as a lawyer, called the CAPA (Certificat d'Aptitude à la Profession d'Avocat)

And finally you become a qualified lawyer... :)

I won't be of much help concerning the job opportunities, sorry..

so if i can be of any more help, just tell me!



I am a French citizen, bilingual French and English, and I have completed all my education in England, including a bachelor of Law (LLB) at City, University of London. In addition to possibly qualifying as an English lawyer (solicitor), I would like to qualify as a French lawyer.

My research relating to qualifying as a French lawyer has led to the conclusion that I have to first complete a Master 1, to meet the requirements of entry to the Ecole de Formation du Barreau. However, I cannot find a Master 1 in France, which stipulates the possibily to enter the M1 programme with an LLB in English Law.

The only programme that I have found is the dual programme master 1 / LL.M International Business Law, offered by Lyon Catholic University in partnership with City, University of London. But, I cannot find much information about the reputation and prospects of the programme, beside the information available on the website. The course is also not featured on the website of City, University of London, which leaves me concerned. Can you share your thoughts about the course or experience?

http://www.ucly.fr/en/ll-m-in-internatio...

Alternatively, please advise me on the best proceeding course of action, considering my qualifications and objective to become a French lawyer. I am not a qualified English lawyer.

Thank you for your help!
[quote]Hi Tonykhan,

I am a French "avocat" to be:), so maybe i can be helpful somehow. if you need more answers, don't hesitate to ask!

there are two possibilities to qualify as "avocat".

either you are already a lawyer in your country (which i guess is your case), and then you have to pass a simplified examination (not sure of the name, though..) basically you study deontology, tort law and a few others... I am not very much aware of that procedure, but maybe you can find helpful info on www.avocatparis.org/

or you're not a qualified lawyer in your home country and then you have to take the entrance examination to a Centre de Formation Régional à la Profession d'Avocat (CRFPA -one by region) or the the Ecole de Formation du Barreau (same kind of school, but this name only applies to the Paris school).
To be able to sit for the CRFPA exam, you first have to be registered in an IEJ (Institut d'Etudes Judiciaires) for one year. Every University has an IEJ, and it prepares you to the exam. they give lectures and classes every week, on the subjects required to pass the exam (accountings, tort, international, procedure, criminal law etc etc)
to be honest, i actually never attended these classes, instead i follow an intensive private program during the summer to prepare the exam.
However, whether you attend the classes or not , you have to be registered within an IEJ.

Every IEJ organises its own examination to enter the CRFPA (i know it's pretty weird), so some IEJ are known for being quite easy when others give really hard examinations.... example: 30-35% of the students from the IEJ of Paris 2 are admitted to the EFB; 60% of the students from the IEJ of Malakoff are admitted to the EFB etc.

once you pass the exam , you enter the CRFPA or EFB.
Then, you have 18 months of attendance in this school:
6 months of classes
6 months of PPI (basically, you have to do an internship, or an LLM, or anything related to law, but no internship in a law firm in France)
6 months of internship in a law firm in France

once these 18 months are done, you take an other examination, to finally qualify as a lawyer, called the CAPA (Certificat d'Aptitude à la Profession d'Avocat)

And finally you become a qualified lawyer... :)

I won't be of much help concerning the job opportunities, sorry..

so if i can be of any more help, just tell me![/quote]



I am a French citizen, bilingual French and English, and I have completed all my education in England, including a bachelor of Law (LLB) at City, University of London. In addition to possibly qualifying as an English lawyer (solicitor), I would like to qualify as a French lawyer.

My research relating to qualifying as a French lawyer has led to the conclusion that I have to first complete a Master 1, to meet the requirements of entry to the Ecole de Formation du Barreau. However, I cannot find a Master 1 in France, which stipulates the possibily to enter the M1 programme with an LLB in English Law.

The only programme that I have found is the dual programme master 1 / LL.M International Business Law, offered by Lyon Catholic University in partnership with City, University of London. But, I cannot find much information about the reputation and prospects of the programme, beside the information available on the website. The course is also not featured on the website of City, University of London, which leaves me concerned. Can you share your thoughts about the course or experience?

http://www.ucly.fr/en/ll-m-in-internatio...

Alternatively, please advise me on the best proceeding course of action, considering my qualifications and objective to become a French lawyer. I am not a qualified English lawyer.

Thank you for your help!

quote

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