The demand for legal minds armed with specialized knowledge is growing, as industries and the profession grapple with complex challenges that call for nuanced legal solutions. This is where specialized Master of Law (LL.M.) programs come in handy. They offer focused education, enabling practicing attorneys to hone their skills in niche domains.
Today, lawyers are not only expected to possess a strong foundation in fundamental principles but also to exhibit a deep comprehension of specialized areas such as intellectual property, environmental law, international trade, and more. It is within this context that specialized LL.M. programs have risen to prominence, offering students a chance to delve far deeper into subjects than a generalist LL.M. would allow.
Cybersecurity: fighting hackers
The range of options are vast, including cybersecurity and data privacy. Increasingly complex cyber-attacks have prompted governments around the globe to introduce tougher measures. The fast-evolving regulatory landscape is increasing the demand for legal expertise.
“The sophistication of cyber threats and the growing reliance on digital infrastructures worldwide are driving legislative and policy changes, thus creating a higher demand for professionals who understand these dynamics,” says Aaron Ghirardelli, visiting associate professor at LMU Loyola Law School in Los Angeles.
Traditionally, most data privacy-lawyers were self-taught with no formal training in law school. So today students attending an LL.M. degree in cybersecurity and data privacy are the very first receiving full training in this field in law school. In the program offered at LMU Loyola Law School, students learn the topic from leading practitioners in the field, getting both an academic and practical component in their training.
“Our Cybersecurity and Data Privacy LL.M. program equips graduates with a deep understanding of the legal and regulatory frameworks of this field, with a focus on compliance strategies,” says Ghirardelli.
“Key learning outcomes include identifying and mitigating the legal effects of cyber threats, interpreting and applying cybersecurity laws, and developing incident response plans.
“In terms of career outcomes, our graduates find opportunities as cybersecurity legal consultants, data privacy officers, cyber policy analysts, and compliance managers, among other roles, in industries ranging from technology and finance to government and healthcare.”
Healthcare: a growing field
Alongside cybersecurity, one field of growing significance is healthcare. Coronavirus has highlighted the need to strengthen health systems, and lawyers will play a crucial role. “In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, studying and practicing health law has never been more relevant or impactful,” says Sara Roache, director of health law at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington DC.
“For example, lawyers will draft legislation to finance and govern universal access to health care, develop legal and policy measures to help reduce consumption of tobacco and other harmful products, and engage in advocacy and litigation to end discriminatory practices that deny health care to vulnerable groups,” she says.
Georgetown has more than 40 courses exploring the intersections of health and the law. “Our Health Law LL.M. students share a common passion for improving health outcomes,” Roache says. “We have welcomed students from more than 30 countries interested in diverse areas of health law, including human rights, food and drug law. Students not only learn from their professors; they challenge and inspire one another to improve health and equity in their communities.”
Corporate law: popular
Meanwhile, corporate law programs have risen in popularity in recent years given the strength of the M&A market. Several of the world’s leading schools of law offer LL.M. programs in corporate law, from the University of Cambridge Faculty of Law to New York University (NYU) School of Law, and National University of Singapore (NUS) Faculty of Law. The career outcomes are especially bright. “There is always demand for lawyers to work on M&A deals,” says Andrew Johnston, professor of company law and corporate governance at University of Warwick School of Law, in the UK.
Warwick’s LL.M. programs allow students to focus on Commercial Law, International Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation or International Economic Law. Johnston leads a module on the Regulation of M&A, which gives students a critical overview both of the regulatory regime and of the policy considerations which lie behind it.
“As well as careful consideration of the UK takeover regime, we adopt comparative perspectives on takeover regulation and explore the growing role of institutional investors in influencing the outcome of deals,” Johnston says.
He adds that cross-cultural communication skills are also essential. “Lawyers will have to deal with counterparts in other jurisdictions who are advising on the local rules, whether as they relate to the conduct of takeovers, financing arrangements or possible requirements for government approval.”