Public International Law
Studying for an LL.M. in Public International Law can be quite an undertaking, because the field is so broad. Indeed, public international law addresses the relationships—and the conflicts that arise between—nations. This often includes issues and laws that cross borders, such as climate change, human rights issues, and war, for example. This means that lawyers and others working in the field of public international law often need to understand not only international laws, but the individual laws of various nation-states as well.
Graduates of LL.M. programs in Public International Law can often find work in a range of organizations, such as law firms working internationally, international courts, and NGOs, to name a few.
Environmental Law is an increasingly relevant LL.M. specialization as activists, businesses, politicians and policymakers grapple with climate change and how to prevent it. It is also an increasingly popular specialization among LL.M. students. Environmental Law programs cover local and international frameworks for environmental protection, the use of natural resources and climate change prevention. Students are also exposed to various related topics including water law, business and trade, indigenous land issues, environmental justice and historic preservation. An LL.M. in Environmental Law prepares students for work in private law firms, as environment and sustainability advocates, as educators and policymakers, and for work in international bodies.
International Tax Law
Globalization has created opportunities and challenges for the world’s international businesses, policymakers and governments. Taxing international dealings appropriately – and getting the best deal at the other end – has become a complicated task that demands experts in the field of international tax law. For those looking to comprehend how tax regimes around the world interact, LL.M.s in international taxation as well as related master’s degrees provide the opportunity to study how citizens, businesses and governments manage the challenges of international taxation. For those who pursue an LL.M. concentration in international tax law, careers in global corporations, policymaking, accountancy and government await.
Maritime law—sometimes known as admiralty law—regulates activities that take place on the sea. Many countries have their own laws which govern maritime activities within their borders, but there are also various treaties and conventions which provide a framework for international maritime laws. Students pursuing an LL.M. program in Maritime or Admiralty Law will be exposed to a number of issues important in the field, including regulation of shipping, marine insurance, and international trade. And increasingly, LL.M. programs in Maritime Law are also exploring related topics, such as marine pollution and climate change. An LL.M. in Maritime Law can prepare grads for a variety of jobs, including maritime specialists in private law firms, legal analysts at maritime insurance firms, or positions at international bodies.
Generally speaking, competition law—often referred to as antitrust law—seeks to prevent the rise of monopolies or cartels. Prominent cases like the litany of antitrust battles between Microsoft and the US government, as well as the legal difficulties that Google is facing as it expands globally, show the complex issues that firms face as they grow. Because of the delicate interplay between economics and competition, those who pursue LL.M.s in Competition Law might study a range of topics, from economic analysis to intellectual property rights. And indeed, graduates of LL.M. programs in Competition Law have gone on to provide expert advice in intellectual property and business law, serve with governmental and international regulatory bodies, and become specialized consultants for companies, legal firms and government.